潛能表現主義藝術 Potential Expressionist Art
藝術的根源，本屬無形現於有形，形似雲霧輕煙，碰觸不了，但又確實充滿智慧；可用形象來反映現實，但比現實具有典型性的社會意識形態，當中包括文學，繪畫、雕塑、建築、音樂、舞蹈、戲劇、電影、曲藝等；隨着琢磨藝術故中涵義，除了有助修行，懂得敢捨、能捨，修整個人視野外，更可驟然喚醒心靈的欣喜若狂，喚起欣然昇華的溫度表，更具沒人能奪取的內涵。先提升學習技巧，後從潛意識的創作中發掘出個人的潛能，把個人的潛才領域表現在藝術或不同領域中。潛能表現主義藝術 Potential Expressionist Art 提倡以自然本能，啓動個人內在潛能; 以本能的轉變( Turn transformation of the instinct ) 的新思潮，在萌芽中的表現手法。
The root of art is shapeless but we can express it in different forms. It is not an object that you can touch and it is full of wisdom. We can use various forms of art to reflect the reality. Art is a typical social ideology than reality, including literature, painting, sculpture, architecture, music, dance, drama and film. Studying art can help you reflect, allow us to understand give and take, to broaden our horizons and to awake our souls. It is the inner beauty that no one can take away. First, we need to improve the leaning skill. Then to discover the potential of the individual from the subconscious creation. And express your personal potential in art or in different fields.Potential Expressionism Art promotes the intrinsic potential of individuals with natural instincts. It is the turn transformation of the instinct.
潛能的啓動 The activation of potential
西格蒙德· 佛洛伊德於1900年代初，對研究理解人的心智、精神分析理論核心作出了解讀；認為人的言行舉止，意志屬為一種幻念，並不能完全意識自我，並分三個層次描述頭腦結構級別。佛洛伊德在(1900, 1905) 開發了一個如同頭腦的一個地形模型topographical mode, 藉此用來描述頭腦的結構和作用特徵。佛洛伊德用冰山比喻及描述，三種不同心智的意識層面。第一級別- 有意識佔10%，第二級別- 潛意識佔50-60%，第三級別- 無意識 佔30-40%，把心靈核心理論以一座冰山作比喻。佛洛伊德認為浮在水面的第一級別部分代表意識，存在決定意識，意識又反作用於存在；在水底第二級別部分面積代表潛意識，是有機體對外界刺激的本能反應，沒有意識的心理活動；在水底最下層第三級別的無意識部分，指過去的記憶、經歷或創傷而被有意識地遺忘，使不重要的區間被壓抑，成不會自動回憶思考的記憶，因而形成了我們的信仰、習慣和行為。
In the early 1900s, Sigmund Freud interpreted the core of research and understanding of the mind and psychoanalytic theory. He believes that people's words and deeds and will are a kind of illusion, and they cannot fully understand themselves. He describes the level of brain structure in three levels. Freud developed a topographical mode (1900, 1905) to describe the structure and function of the brain. Freud uses the iceberg metaphor to describe the level of consciousness of three different minds. The first level is consciously accounted for 10%. The second level is the subconscious accounted for is 50-60%. The third level is unconscious accounted for 30-40%. He compared the core theory of the mind to an iceberg. Freud believes that the first level represents the consciousness. It is the decision consciousness and the reaction. The second level represents the subconscious, the instinctive reaction of the organism to external stimuli, and the unconscious mental activity. The third level at the bottom is the unconscious part, which is consciously forgotten in the past memory, experience or trauma. The unimportant interval is suppressed so that it does not automatically recall the memory of thinking, thus forming our beliefs, habits and behaviour.
Under the characteristics and theories of the subconscious, this kind of effect is a kind of spiritual essence lurking under the consciousness, which can control all the thoughts, words and behaviours of people without surprise. Everyone has the potential to hide their potentials. Everyone has his/her own unique feeling and has different inductive powers on things. In terms of function, it depends on whether it can be explored and played in professional, academic, research, music, sports, performing arts and so on.
Potential is hidden in the subconscious. The Chinese representative Li Shutong (1880-1942), also named as Li Wentao, was from Zhejiang. His artistic achievements were shown for 62 years. He was involved in different fields of art with outstanding accomplishment. No one is comparable to him. Li read a lot of classics since he was a child. His knowledge in Chinese history and literature was profound. He also studied calligraphy with famous teachers. His calligraphy works are very popular. In 1905, Li went to Japan to study at Tokyo's Shangye Art and Music School, where he specialized in Western painting and music and participated in stage performances. His "Dreaming of Home and Mother" has become a classic song for decades. He also became a founding member of the Chinese stage drama movement at that time. He was a pioneer in the spread of Western music to China. After returning to China in 1910, he was appointed to Tianjin's Beiyang Advanced Industry School. The next year he was appointed as a music teacher at Shanghai's East Girl's School. In 1912 he became a professor at Zhejiang Secondary Normal School as a musician and professor. In addition to music, drama, and painting, he also engaged in various cultural and educational work, including calligraphy, engraving, poetry, and songs. He taught a group of outstanding students, such as Pan Tianshou, famous painter Feng Zikai, musician Liu Jingping etc.
Li Shutong has proved to the future generations that the inspiration of potential is not limited to a certain unit or a certain category. He received a deep and standardized academic and art education. And he was inspired by the famous teacher and expressed his potential talents in music, drama, painting, calligraphy, engraving, poetry and songs. He was the first who broke the old rules and set new standards in his creation of modern Chinese ink paintings and follows the historical traces of the subconscious to create accidents. His works still receive much appreciation today.
表現主義的進程 The development of Expressionism
Expressionism and romanticism emerged before the First World War.At first, an artist who was called expressionism would take down the basic theory of colour that Faussim used. They would consider the hustle and bustle of the original colours, showed the vitality in the colours and created brilliant works. He tried to express the emotional and hidden symbol of multi-source meaning from a subjective perspective to evoke joy, resentment and sorrow, and to reflect the social situation at that time.
在19世紀，表現主義普遍流行，在德國柏林更甚廣。在1905年的德國，藝術家最感興趣的在顏色表現，從後印象派衍生，被稱為表現主義。而表現主義風格更伸延到不同範疇的藝術上，包括建築、繪畫、文學、劇院、舞蹈、電影和音樂。表現主義也可說是一種現代主義運動，最初出現於詩歌和繪畫上。在1905年，四名德國建築學學生在Dresden德累斯頓，在法國Fauve展覽會中展出Die Brüke (The Bridge). 展品名稱來自藝術家的創意思維。他們的藝術堅定破舊立新，建立資本階級社會秩的德國，從現代世界的異化感覺，通過追溯前學術形式的表現，融合個人藝術風格和現代革命的明亮創作，包括木刻版畫、木雕塑和繪畫等模式。接下來年, 另外兩名同道者加入，聯結組織一起繼續工作到1913年止。第一次世界大戰在1914年爆發。
In the 19th century, expressionism was popular and especially in Berlin, Germany. In 1905, German artists were most interested in colour performance. The emergence of Impressionism was later called expressionism. The expressionist style extends to different categories of art, including architecture, painting, literature, theatre, dance, film and music. Expressionism can also be said to be a modernist movement that first appeared in poetry and painting. In 1905, four German architecture students exhibited Die Brüke (The Bridge) at the Fauve exhibition in Dresden, France. The name of the exhibit came from the artist's creative thinking. They set a new standard to art and established a capitalist social order in Germany. From the alienation feelings of the modern world, they trace the patterns of pre-existing academic forms, blending individual artistic styles and modern revolutions to create patterns such as woodcut prints, wood sculptures and paintings. After that, two other fellows joined and continued to Work until 1913. The First World War broke out in 1914.
然而，潛能表現主義的起始根源，與超現實主義悠關。作家Andre Breton 安德列-布列塔尼在1924年作出第一個超現實主義宣言，這彌合了與超現實主義的差距。他倡義藝術與文學該以佛洛伊德的自由聯想體系的精神分析作為基礎，其理論背景為弗洛伊德的精神分析學說和帕格森的直覺主義。強調直覺和下意識。去探索想像力、進入神話世界、恐懼的幻想和夢想為切入點。
However, the emergence of potential expressionism was related to surrealism. Writer Andre Breton made the first surrealist declaration in 1924 that bridged the gap with surrealism. His advocacy of art and literature should be based on the spiritual analysis of Freud's free association system. His theoretical background was Freud's psychoanalytic theory and Pagson's intuitionism, emphasizing intuition and subconsciousness, exploring imagination, entering the mythical world and fear of fantasy and dreams as the entry point.
Andre Breton 安德列- 布列塔尼也曾研究過醫學, 就像佛洛伊德的一樣, 也曾成為在第一次世界大戰中創傷受害者之一。這使布列塔尼和佛洛伊德都認識到創傷的力量，深明這力量超越有意識邏輯思維的力量。因此, 布列塔尼深信創造力的源泉現在於那裡，並希望成為無意識的受益者。他以自動主義automatism, 把描繪物象的外形反覆描繪，如同將紙撕碎使其隨風飄墜地上，產生不同形狀的配置。這概念亦運用在於寫作文字上。1925年8月10日，恩斯特（Marx Ernest) 宣稱這種做法為「磨擦法」，是真正應用於動性寫作的視覺藝術。
Andre Breton has also studied medicine. Like Freud, he was a victim of trauma in the First World War. This made both Breton and Freud aware of the power of trauma, knowing that this power transcended the power of conscious logical thinking. Therefore, Breton believed that the source of creativity was there and hoped to be an unconscious beneficiary. He used automatism to repeatedly depict the shape of the object, as if the paper was shredded to fall on the ground with the wind, resulting in different shapes. He also applied this concept in writing. On August 10, 1925, Marx Ernest declared that this practice was a "friction method" and was a visual art that was truly applied to dynamic writing.
潛能藝術的起動 The rise of Potential Expressionist Art
2014年4月9-14日，潛能表現主義藝術作品展覽在香港視覺藝術中心舉辦的”Open Your Heart”展覽會中展出。而其工作坊，從2015年7月開始，本地社區中心作試點，教授學員跟隨藝術基本原素和結構理論，讓眾學員不管在繪畫着同一個圖像、臨摹或創作，均以個人潛能為出發點，順隨自然地引發個人心中的情感、歷史痕跡，並在卸除鉫鎖的鼓勵下表現出來。潛能表現主義工作坊的年齡層從小學生擴闊至成人。後來工作坊活動增至不同機構提供服務給與學童及人士，如「青年旅舍協會」、「青年空間」及「香港明愛」「藝育菁英」等。
On April 9-14, 2014, the "Open Your Heart" exhibition at the Hong Kong Visual Arts Centre featured the Exhibition of Potential Expressionist Art. Its workshop began in July 2015 and was piloted at the local community center to teach students to follow the basic principles of art and structural theory. Students painted, drew and created from their personal potential. The teacher encouraged them to follow their feelings and historical traces and remove the shackles to express. Participants in the Potential Expressionist Art workshop ranged from primary school students to adults. Later, the activities of the workshops were extended to more people and organizations such as the "Youth Hostel Association", " The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups " and " Caritas Hong Kong " and " Young Artists Development Foundation ".
The Young Artists Development Foundation is dedicated to promoting the art of painting through the Foundation. YADF provides free funding to primary school students in Hong Kong, giving students the opportunity to meet and learn about different types of art and overseas exchange opportunities. The Foundation is sponsored by the Hong Kong Jockey Club to organise a free, three-year Masters Workshop. Beginning in April 2016, a monthly workshop was held at the Kwai Hing Campus of the Hong Kong Open University (KHC) to enable students to understand the characteristics of different materials and their characteristics, strengths and weaknesses and theoretical models and to express their creation. It allows them to use their potential power to discover the talent in art, enrich their artistic connotations, and enhance their interest in art. In addition to the art field, in recent years, a group of teachers or mentors of educational union organizations have launched a "potential start-up" program to guide the learners to find their potential.
Eva Tsang Sze Ki May, 2018